President Obama calls Paris attacks 'heartbreaking,' 'attack on all of humanity'
Jun 23, · The values cited above represented the best of humanity, and fostered a culture of benevolence, creativity, and opportunity. But that was then, and This is Now. Originally Answered: What has really happened to the value of humanity? I may be oversimplifying, but I think it has been the victim of science-supported selfishness. Positivist science has imbued us with the idea that there is nothing beyond the natural reality and our humanism is illusory, with the implicit consequence of unaccountability.
His book, The Crucifixion and the Quran was published infollowed by Gnostic Apocalypse and Islam in ; he is also the editor of Reason and Inspiration in Islama collection of essays bringing together the disciplines of theology, philosophy and mysticism. He is currently writing a book on the Quran as sacred epic.
We understand that you were born and raised in Indiana, then moved to Canada to escape the Vietnam era draft. The University of Toronto is the place that I taught the longest. How would you describe in a nutshell the deepening considerations of our humanity which many years of teaching this subject has brought you? One of the main things I have learned is the enormous debt that society, humanity and civilisation at large — to the degree that it is civilised and humane and social — owes to Islam and the Islamic venture.
This has been my ongoing interest. Growing up where I did, being born where I was, going to school in Indiana, we what oil for french fries nothing of Islam or Muhammad or Muslims, and I think we never even heard those words mentioned the whole time I went to school or was at university.
Even in history courses, in college or high school, these subjects never came up. I had the name of one of the group from a friend in Indiana, and had been advised to get in touch. They were very kind to me and hospitable, helping me to situate myself in the country. This really spoke to me somehow. I was completely innocent of anything to do with Islam. I thought at first: this of course is absurd, this is an old mythic way of thinking about the way life goes on. But then as I read more and I thought about it and looked at it, I said to myself: Well, why not keep an open mind?
Because it was a relatively recent prophecy, was this process of evolving revelation something you felt you could participate in? In a sense, what got me was that it was too how to fertilize dragon fruit plant to say no.
It was too easy to just say: these people have their heads in the clouds. So I decided that I was not going to do that. I was going to think about it and look into it. This all sounded good to me and felt like a healthy thing for the world to be engaged with. There is no doubt that it was a refuge, both psychologically and socially, and also individually, because I had left my family.
When I left Indiana I was just 19, and thought that I would never see my family again. I felt I had been guided and felt grateful.
Where does the Islamic identity end? What are the differences and what are the similarities between the two faiths? I felt this was, for me, a very important area of research. This interest whatever happened to the values of humanity a while to form. It came to a head when I returned to university after being out of education for a while.
In the meantime, I did all sorts of things; I was a taxi driver, a printer, I worked in a steel mill. I was even a lumberjack. I had a family, was married and had a daughter. But one day I decided that life could not go on like this, I had to do something else, and so I went back to university with the idea of becoming a lawyer. Then in the process of finishing my degree at the University of British Columbia, I became interested in studying Islam.
It just happened. I took a course in Islamic studies and there was a teacher called Hanna Kassis who is well known in Islamic studies for his concordance of the A. Arberry translation of the Quran. He was one of the first people to apply computer know-how to texts. Kassis was a literary man, and he was also deeply spiritual and especially sensitive to the faiths of others. His classes were very popular because he was an excellent teacher.
He was a Palestinian Christian but he loved the Quran. He glowed at the mention of the Quran, and he glowed when speaking about it to the class. His enthusiasm was contagious. From that how to eat arbroath smokies I dropped the idea of law, and enrolled at the Institute of Islamic Studies in Montreal. This became identified with a kind of utopian ideal.
In the ensuing 40 years, the day to day perceptions of Islam have changed from the very positive and appealing image associated with, for example, events such as what cordless phone is the best World of Islam Festival in London, and seem to have reverted to an almost siege-like mentality. Although in Europe and England, for geographic reasons, you have had more connection with Islam.
In Canada, we had nothing like the World of Islam Festival. When I first started taking courses, I would get a thrill at finding the odd article that mentioned Islam in a newspaper. I would cut one out about every three months. The World of Islam Festival took place in London in the spring of Its aim was to demonstrate the rich culture of Islam and its achievements in the arts, crafts and sciences.
Backed by 32 Muslim nations, it included exhibitions, lectures and seminars at museums and universities in London and other cities, and produced a number of publications of lasting value, such as S. But understanding is not the issue. For example, Coltrane — in whose music I seemed to hear from the very beginning a new and astounding intelligence — was rearranging the way we feel and experience sound and beauty, time and tonality, and all of these things; he takes us on some kind of journey and leaves us in a new place.
I would read it over and over again. The deepest possible meaning, and, as you said, this was at a very difficult time in my life. This process began with the beginning of humanity, with the hunter—gatherers, through the village dwellers and agriculture, through the evolution of small towns, city-states and, eventually, nations.
Muhammad brought together a remarkable array of humanity under the same general spiritual law. But yet today the exact whatever happened to the values of humanity appears to be happening and we are all finding it difficult to face the task of accepting one another. But I can tell you what it is about the Quran that I think should be better known. Of course, we can think about the Quran in many different ways. If we had ten Quranically well-educated people in here and asked them to identify the five major themes in the Quran, they would all come up with different ones, all valid.
In my recent thinking, I have become deeply interested by the degree to which the notion of humanity itself is a major theme in the Quran. It is not about the Arabs, the Persians, or the Middle Easterners: it is about humanity. This was the song that appealed to the great vast expanse of humanity which came under its umbrella, so that in such a short period of time Islam bestowed a universal set of spiritual and moral values upon a widespread and highly cosmopolitan population.
This is a great achievement, and the reason it was able to do this from a scriptural point of view is because the Quran validates and esteems the prophets of every community. There are 25 prophets mentioned in the Quran but the tradition tells us there arewho have existed.
In fact, there is no human community that has not had a divine revelation. In terms of religion, this is a bit different from saying we are bringing the truth to some poor benighted savage that lives on an island. The Quran recognises that everyone has had a revelation, has what elections are held in 2014 touched by a divine message, and that what it represents is a recent version or enrichment of the message.
The understanding is that all the prophets share the same source, the same light. This comes straight from the Quran, which teaches that prophecy is something all humanity experiences regardless of geography, language, race or tribal interests.
The God of the Quran has spoken to all humans, loves all humans, guides all humans. The Islamicate gift to humanity is the understanding that we are all related. The myth in the Quran of the Day of the Covenant reinforces this see Quran This sacred myth assures us that anyone who has ever lived or will ever live in the foreseeable or imaginable future was present there — and was there in peace, united in their own connection with each other through their connection to God.
How has your understanding of the Quran and its place in educating humanity evolved? This is a bit like the how to make a jubilee crown that history should be rewritten in every generation.
The Quran should be translated in every generation. Nonetheless, it is possible to communicate and talk about the Quran, and to teach people how it is connected with these great achievements that Islam brought to the world: serious scientific, social, organisational, and even military achievements — all kinds of cultural and civilisational advances that the West continues to benefit from.
One of the problems with the West in my view is that it does not wish to confront or acknowledge the Islamic component that is deep within it — its debt to Islam, as it were. Our teacher revealed the beauty of the Quranic theophany to us because he could speak about how beautiful it was from a literary point of view.
But the literary always carries a spiritual charge in that context, always. So I would say that I was interested in spiritual aspects from the beginning. For example, The Hidden Words is full of very beautiful spiritual maxims and aphorisms. However, the book that really inspired me was The Seven Valleys and the Four Valleyswhich is about the journey of a soul through these valleys, and the spiritual heroism traced what are the hurricane predictions for 2012 the beginning to the end of these journeys.
Things were footnoted, so if they knew that something was from Rumi they would say so, or if it was the Quran, they identified it. I felt that it was very hopeful, to say the least. I think maybe that might characterise what happened in retrospect. But at the time it felt rather different. I had already been exposed to improvisatory music, jazz particularly, before I left home. Perhaps the most important thing that happened to me in my samsung wave 525 apps free download whatsapp was listening to John Coltrane, and what I loved about this, what his art taught me, was that the apparent chaos of existence may have a thread of meaning running through it.
Cultural historians argue that the European Renaissance would not have occurred — would have been impossible — without Islam. Many scholars now say that the idea of the university was an Islamically-inspired cultural achievement, and that the West took it up and developed it.
This claim is controversial, but it is nonetheless important. Also, the way in which Islam actually periodises and talks about history has had a great influence on the way we see ourselves as human beings. There was a great cross-fertilisation in Andalusia before the Reconquista between Islamic scientists and people of knowledge, and the Jews and the Christians. But perhaps most importantly, the idea of religion itself was given great impetus by the Islamic movement — the idea of the Abrahamic family of religions and so on.
The Beginning of Life
Yo', whatever happened to the values of humanity Whatever happened to the fairness in equality Instead in spreading love we spreading animosity Lack of understanding, leading lives away from unity That's the reason why sometimes I'm feelin' under That's the reason why sometimes I'm feelin' down There's no wonder why sometimes I'm feelin' under. Dec 09, · "Whatever happened to the values of humanity Whatever happened to the fairness and equality Instead of spreading love we’re spreading animosity Lack of understanding, leading us away from unity” - Black Eyed Peas, Where is the love – popular memes on the site electronicgamingbusiness.com Feb 28, · What Ever Happened to Basic Human Decency? Society is deciding that integrity is a losing proposition. Posted Feb 28, | Reviewed by Davia Sills.
The value of life is an economic value used to quantify the benefit of avoiding a fatality. In social and political sciences , it is the marginal cost of death prevention in a certain class of circumstances. In many studies the value also includes the quality of life, the expected life time remaining, as well as the earning potential of a given person especially for an after-the-fact payment in a wrongful death claim lawsuit.
As such, it is a statistical term, the cost of reducing the average number of deaths by one. It is an important issue in a wide range of disciplines including economics , health care , adoption , political economy , insurance , worker safety , environmental impact assessment , and globalization.
In industrial nations, the justice system considers a human life "priceless", thus illegalizing any form of slavery; i. However, with a limited supply of resources or infrastructural capital e. Also, this argument neglects the statistical context of the term. It is not commonly attached to lives of individuals or used to compare the value of one person's life relative to another person's. It is mainly used in circumstances of saving lives as opposed to taking lives or "producing" lives.
There is no standard concept for the value of a specific human life in economics. Note that the VSL is very different from the value of an actual life. It is the value placed on changes in the likelihood of death, not the price someone would pay to avoid certain death.
This is best explained by way of an example. From the EPA 's website:. Suppose each person in a sample of , people were asked how much he or she would be willing to pay for a reduction in their individual risk of dying of 1 in ,, or 0. Since this reduction in risk would mean that we would expect one fewer death among the sample of , people over the next year on average, this is sometimes described as "one statistical life saved.
This is what is meant by the "value of a statistical life. This again emphasizes that VSL is more of an estimate of willingness to pay for small reductions in mortality risks rather than how much a human life is worth.
Using government spending to see how much is spent to save lives in order to estimate the average individual VSL is a popular method of calculation. The United States government does not have an official value of life threshold, but different values are used in different agencies.
It might be that the government values lives quite highly or that calculation standards are not applied uniformly. Economists often estimate the VSL by looking at the risks that people are voluntarily willing to take and how much they must be paid for taking them.
In this context, economists would look at how much individuals are willing to pay for something that reduces their chance of dying. Similarly, compensating differentials, which are the reduced or additional wage payments that are intended to compensate workers for conveniences or downsides of a job, can be used for VSL calculations.
The compensating differentials method has several weaknesses. One issue is that the approach assumes that people have information, which is not always available. Another issue is that people may have higher or lower perceptions of risk they are facing that do not equate to actual statistical risk. In general, it is difficult for people to accurately understand and assess risk. It is also hard to control for other aspects of a job or different types of work when using this method.
One method that can be used to calculate VSL is summing the total present discounted value of lifetime earnings. There are a couple of problems using this method. One potential source of variability is that different discount rates can be used in this calculation, resulting in dissimilar VSL estimates. Another potential issue when using wages to value life is that the calculation does not take into account the value of time that is not spent working, such as vacation or leisure.
Another method used to estimate VSL is contingent valuation. Contingent valuation asks individuals to value an option either that they have not chosen or are unable to currently choose. However, contingent valuation has some flaws. The first problem is known as the isolation of issues, where participants may give different values when asked to value something alone versus when they are asked to value multiple things.
The order of how these issues are presented to people matters as well. When calculating value of statistical life, it is important to discount and adjust it for inflation and real income growth over the years.
An example of a formula needed to adjust the VSL of a specific year is given by the following:. The value of statistical life VSL estimates are often used in the transport sector. In health economics and in the pharmaceutical sector, however, the value of a quality-adjusted life-year QALY is used more often than the VSL.
Researchers have first attempted to monetize QALY in the s, with countless studies being done to standardize values between and within countries. However, as with the QALY, VSL estimates have also had a history of vastly differing ranges of estimates within countries, notwithstanding a standardization among countries.
One of the biggest movements to do so was the EuroVaQ project which used a sample of 40, individuals to develop the WTP of several European countries.
Value of life estimates are frequently used to estimate the benefits added due to a new policy or act passed by the government. One example is the 6-year retroactive study on the benefits and costs of the Clean Air Act [ clarification needed ] in the period from This study was commissioned by the U. Richard Schmalensee of MIT. On conducting the benefit-cost analysis, the team measured each dollar value of an environmental benefit by estimating a how many dollars a person is willing to pay in order to decrease or eliminate a current threat to their health, otherwise known as their " willingness-to-pay " WTP.
The WTP of the U. For example, the valuation estimates used for mortality were divided by the typical life expectancy of each survey sample in order to get a dollar estimate per life-year lost or saved which was discounted with a 5 percent discount rate. Knowing the value of life is helpful when performing a cost-benefit analysis, especially in regard to public policy. In order to decide whether or not a policy is worth undertaking, it is important to accurately measure costs and benefits.
Public programs that deal with things like safety i. Since resources are finite, trade-offs are inevitable, even regarding potential life-or-death decisions. The assignment of a value to individual life is one possible approach to attempting to make rational decisions about these trade-offs. When deciding on the appropriate level of health care spending, a typical method is to equate the marginal cost of the health care to the marginal benefits received. One notable example was found by Stanford professor Stefanos Zenios, whose team calculated the cost-effectiveness of kidney dialysis.
In risk management activities such as in the areas of workplace safety , and insurance, it is often useful to put a precise economic value on a given life. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration under the Department of Labor sets penalties and regulations for companies to comply with safety standards to prevent workplace injuries and deaths.
As such, the price of the fines would have to be roughly equivalent to the value of a human life. Although some studies of the effectiveness of fines as a deterrent have found mixed results. In transportation modes it is very important to consider the external cost that is paid by the society but is not calculated, for making it more sustainable.
The external cost, although consisting of impacts on climate , crops and public health among others, is largely determined by impacts on mortality rate. Equivalent parameters are used in many countries, with significant variation in the value assigned.
The following estimates have been applied to the value of life. The estimates are either for one year of additional life or for the statistical value of a single life. The income elasticity of the value of statistical life has been estimated at 0. Historically, children were valued little monetarily, but changes in cultural norms have resulted in a substantial increase as evinced by trends in damage compensation from wrongful death lawsuits.
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