3 rows · May 15, · Your doctor will have you take one or more of the following blood tests to confirm the. What tests are used to diagnose diabetes and prediabetes? Health care professionals most often use the fasting plasma glucose (FPG) test or the A1C test to diagnose diabetes. In some cases, they may use a random plasma glucose (RPG) test. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) test The FPG blood test measures your blood glucose level at a single point in time.
Your health care professional can diagnose diabetes, prediabetesand gestational diabetes through blood tests. The blood tests show if your blood glucosealso called blood sugar, is too high. Do not try to diagnose yourself if you think you might have diabetes. Testing equipment that you can buy over the counter, such as a blood glucose metercannot diagnose diabetes.
Anyone who has symptoms of diabetes should be tested for the disease. Some people will not have any symptoms but may have risk factors for diabetes and need to be tested. Testing allows health care professionals to find diabetes sooner and work with their patients to manage diabetes and prevent complications. Testing also allows health care how to moisturize hands home remedies to find prediabetes.
Making lifestyle changes to lose a modest amount of weight if you are overweight may help you delay or prevent type 2 diabetes. Most often, testing for type 1 diabetes occurs in people with diabetes symptoms. Doctors usually diagnose type 1 diabetes in children and young adults. Experts recommend routine testing for type 2 diabetes if you. Medicare covers the cost of diabetes tests for people how to make a pillow pet certain risk factors for diabetes.
If you have Medicare, find out if you qualify for coverage. If you have different insurance, ask your insurance company if it covers diabetes tests.
Though type 2 diabetes most often develops in adults, children also can develop type 2 diabetes. Experts recommend testing children between the ages of 10 and 18 who are overweight or obese and have at least two other risk factors for developing diabetes. All pregnant women who do not have a prior diabetes diagnosis should be tested for gestational diabetes.
If you are pregnant, you will take a glucose challenge test between 24 and 28 weeks of pregnancy. Health care professionals most often use the fasting plasma glucose FPG test or the A1C test to diagnose diabetes. In some cases, they may use a random plasma glucose RPG test. The FPG blood test measures your blood glucose level at a single point in time.
For the most reliable results, it is best to have this test in the morning, after you fast for at least 8 hours. Fasting means having nothing to eat or drink except sips of water.
The A1C test is a blood test that provides your average levels of blood glucose over the past 3 months. You can eat and drink before this test. When it comes to using the A1C to diagnose diabetes, your doctor will consider factors such as your age and whether you have anemia or another problem with your blood.
Your health care professional may need to order a different type of A1C test. Your health care professional will report your A1C test result as a percentage, such as an A1C of 7 percent.
The higher the percentage, the higher your average blood glucose levels. People with diabetes also use information from the A1C test to help manage their diabetes. Sometimes health care professionals use the RPG test to diagnose diabetes when diabetes symptoms are present and they do not want to wait until you have fasted. You do not need to fast overnight for the RPG test. You may have this blood test at any time. Pregnant women may have the glucose challenge test, the oral glucose tolerance test, or both.
These tests show how well your body handles glucose. If you are pregnant and a health care professional is checking you for gestational diabetes, you may first receive the glucose challenge test. Another name for this test is the glucose screening test. In this test, a health care professional will draw your blood 1 hour after you drink a sweet liquid containing glucose.
You do not need to fast for this test. If your blood glucose is too high— to or more—you may need to return for an oral glucose tolerance test while fasting. The OGTT measures blood glucose after you fast for at least 8 hours. First, a health care professional will draw your blood.
Then you will drink the liquid containing glucose. For diagnosing gestational diabetes, you will need your blood drawn every hour for 2 to 3 hours. High blood glucose levels at any two or more blood test times during the OGTT—fasting, how many times to feed goldfish hour, 2 hours, or 3 hours—mean you have gestational diabetes.
Your health care team will explain what your OGTT results mean. Health care professionals also can use the OGTT to diagnose type 2 diabetes and prediabetes in people who are not pregnant. However, the OGTT is a more expensive test and is not as easy to give. To diagnose type 2 diabetes and prediabetes, a health care professional will need to draw your blood 1 hour after you drink what blood test determines diabetes liquid containing glucose and again after 2 hours.
Each test to detect diabetes and prediabetes uses a different measurement. Usually, the what blood test determines diabetes test method needs to be repeated on a second day to diagnose diabetes. Your doctor may also use a second test method to confirm that you have diabetes. Sometimes health care professionals are unsure if diabetes is type 1 or type 2. A rare type of diabetes that can occur in babies, called monogenic diabetescan also be mistaken for type 1 diabetes. Treatment depends on the type of diabetes, so knowing which type you have is important.
To find out if your diabetes is type 1, your health care professional may look for certain autoantibodies. Autoantibodies are antibodies that mistakenly attack your healthy tissues and cells.
The presence of one or more of several types of autoantibodies specific to diabetes is common in type 1 diabetes, but not in type 2 or monogenic diabetes. A health care professional will have to draw your blood for this test.
If you had diabetes while you were pregnant, you should get tested no later than 12 weeks after your baby is born to see if you have type 2 diabetes. The NIDDK translates and disseminates research findings to increase knowledge and understanding about health and disease among patients, health professionals, and the public.
Diabetes Overview What is Diabetes? Type 1 diabetes Type 2 diabetes Gestational diabetes What tests are used to diagnose diabetes and prediabetes? What tests are used to diagnose gestational diabetes? What test numbers tell me if I have diabetes or prediabetes?
Which tests help my health care professional know what kind of diabetes I have? Who should be tested for diabetes? Blood tests help health care professionals diagnose diabetes and prediabetes. Type 1 diabetes Most often, testing for type 1 diabetes occurs in people with diabetes symptoms. Type 2 diabetes Experts recommend routine testing for type 2 diabetes if you are age 45 or older are between the ages of 19 and 44, are overweight or obeseand have one or more other diabetes risk factors are a woman who had gestational diabetes 1 Medicare what happened to hd radio the cost of diabetes tests for people with certain risk factors for diabetes.
A1C test The A1C test is a blood test that provides your average whats the name of the sun god of blood glucose over the past 3 months. Random plasma glucose RPG test Sometimes health care professionals use the RPG test to diagnose diabetes when diabetes symptoms are present and they do not want to wait until you have fasted.
Glucose challenge test If you are pregnant and a health care professional is checking you for gestational diabetes, you may first receive the glucose challenge test. The following table helps you what blood test determines diabetes what your test numbers mean if you are not pregnant. Previous: Preventing Type 2 Diabetes.
Tests for Gestational Diabetes
Symptoms of type 1 diabetes often appear suddenly and are often the reason for checking blood sugar levels. Because symptoms of other types of diabetes and prediabetes come on more gradually or may not be evident, the American Diabetes Association ADA has recommended screening guidelines. The ADA recommends that the following people be screened for diabetes:. Glycated hemoglobin A1C test. This blood test, which doesn't require fasting, indicates your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months.
It measures the percentage of blood sugar attached to hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells. The higher your blood sugar levels, the more hemoglobin you'll have with sugar attached.
An A1C level of 6. An A1C between 5. Below 5. If the A1C test results aren't consistent, the test isn't available, or you have certain conditions that can make the A1C test inaccurate — such as if you are pregnant or have an uncommon form of hemoglobin known as a hemoglobin variant — your doctor may use the following tests to diagnose diabetes:. Oral glucose tolerance test.
For this test, you fast overnight, and the fasting blood sugar level is measured. Then you drink a sugary liquid, and blood sugar levels are tested periodically for the next two hours. If type 1 diabetes is suspected, your urine will be tested to look for the presence of a byproduct produced when muscle and fat tissue are used for energy because the body doesn't have enough insulin to use the available glucose ketones.
Your doctor will also likely run a test to see if you have the destructive immune system cells associated with type 1 diabetes called autoantibodies. Your doctor will likely evaluate your risk factors for gestational diabetes early in your pregnancy:. Initial glucose challenge test. You'll begin the glucose challenge test by drinking a syrupy glucose solution. One hour later, you'll have a blood test to measure your blood sugar level.
If your blood sugar level is higher than normal, it only means you have a higher risk of gestational diabetes. Your doctor will order a follow-up test to determine if you have gestational diabetes. Follow-up glucose tolerance testing. For the follow-up test, you'll be asked to fast overnight and then have your fasting blood sugar level measured.
Then you'll drink another sweet solution — this one containing a higher concentration of glucose — and your blood sugar level will be checked every hour for a period of three hours. If at least two of the blood sugar readings are higher than the normal values established for each of the three hours of the test, you'll be diagnosed with gestational diabetes. Our caring team of Mayo Clinic experts can help you with your diabetes-related health concerns Start Here.
Depending on what type of diabetes you have, blood sugar monitoring, insulin and oral medications may play a role in your treatment. Eating a healthy diet, maintaining a healthy weight and participating in regular activity also are important factors in managing diabetes. An important part of managing diabetes — as well as your overall health — is maintaining a healthy weight through a healthy diet and exercise plan:.
Healthy eating. Contrary to popular perception, there's no specific diabetes diet. You'll need to center your diet on more fruits, vegetables, lean proteins and whole grains — foods that are high in nutrition and fiber and low in fat and calories — and cut down on saturated fats, refined carbohydrates and sweets.
In fact, it's the best eating plan for the entire family. Sugary foods are OK once in a while, as long as they're counted as part of your meal plan. Yet, understanding what and how much to eat can be a challenge. A registered dietitian can help you create a meal plan that fits your health goals, food preferences and lifestyle. This will likely include carbohydrate counting, especially if you have type 1 diabetes or use insulin as part of your treatment. Physical activity.
Everyone needs regular aerobic exercise, and people who have diabetes are no exception. Exercise lowers your blood sugar level by moving sugar into your cells, where it's used for energy. Exercise also increases your sensitivity to insulin, which means your body needs less insulin to transport sugar to your cells. Get your doctor's OK to exercise. Then choose activities you enjoy, such as walking, swimming or biking.
What's most important is making physical activity part of your daily routine. Aim for at least 30 minutes or more of aerobic exercise most days of the week, or at least minutes of moderate physical activity a week.
Bouts of activity can be as brief as 10 minutes, three times a day. If you haven't been active for a while, start slowly and build up gradually. It's also a good idea to avoid sitting for too long — aim to get up and move if you've been sitting for more than 30 minutes.
Treatment for type 1 diabetes involves insulin injections or the use of an insulin pump, frequent blood sugar checks, and carbohydrate counting. Treatment of type 2 diabetes primarily involves lifestyle changes, monitoring of your blood sugar, along with diabetes medications, insulin or both.
Monitoring your blood sugar. Depending on your treatment plan, you may check and record your blood sugar as many as four times a day or more often if you're taking insulin.
Careful monitoring is the only way to make sure that your blood sugar level remains within your target range. People with type 2 diabetes who aren't taking insulin generally check their blood sugar much less frequently. People who receive insulin therapy also may choose to monitor their blood sugar levels with a continuous glucose monitor.
Although this technology hasn't yet completely replaced the glucose meter, it can significantly reduce the number of fingersticks necessary to check blood sugar and provide important information about trends in blood sugar levels. Even with careful management, blood sugar levels can sometimes change unpredictably.
With help from your diabetes treatment team, you'll learn how your blood sugar level changes in response to food, physical activity, medications, illness, alcohol, stress — and for women, fluctuations in hormone levels. In addition to daily blood sugar monitoring, your doctor will likely recommend regular A1C testing to measure your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months.
Compared with repeated daily blood sugar tests, A1C testing better indicates how well your diabetes treatment plan is working overall. An elevated A1C level may signal the need for a change in your oral medication, insulin regimen or meal plan. Your target A1C goal may vary depending on your age and various other factors, such as other medical conditions you may have. Ask your doctor what your A1C target is. People with type 1 diabetes need insulin therapy to survive.
Many people with type 2 diabetes or gestational diabetes also need insulin therapy. Many types of insulin are available, including short-acting regular insulin , rapid-acting insulin, long-acting insulin and intermediate options. Depending on your needs, your doctor may prescribe a mixture of insulin types to use throughout the day and night. Insulin can't be taken orally to lower blood sugar because stomach enzymes interfere with insulin's action.
Often insulin is injected using a fine needle and syringe or an insulin pen — a device that looks like a large ink pen. An insulin pump also may be an option. The pump is a device about the size of a small cellphone worn on the outside of your body. A tube connects the reservoir of insulin to a catheter that's inserted under the skin of your abdomen. A tubeless pump that works wirelessly is also now available. You program an insulin pump to dispense specific amounts of insulin.
It can be adjusted to deliver more or less insulin depending on meals, activity level and blood sugar level. In September , the Food and Drug Administration approved the first artificial pancreas for people with type 1 diabetes who are age 14 and older. A second artificial pancreas was approved in December Since then systems have been approved for children older than 2 years old. An artificial pancreas is also called closed-loop insulin delivery.
The implanted device links a continuous glucose monitor, which checks blood sugar levels every five minutes, to an insulin pump.
The device automatically delivers the correct amount of insulin when the monitor indicates it's needed. Oral or other medications. Sometimes other oral or injected medications are prescribed as well.
Some diabetes medications stimulate your pancreas to produce and release more insulin. Others inhibit the production and release of glucose from your liver, which means you need less insulin to transport sugar into your cells.
Still others block the action of stomach or intestinal enzymes that break down carbohydrates or make your tissues more sensitive to insulin. Metformin Glumetza, Fortamet, others is generally the first medication prescribed for type 2 diabetes. Another class of medication called SGLT2 inhibitors may be used. They work by preventing the kidneys from reabsorbing sugar into the blood. Instead, the sugar is excreted in the urine.
In some people who have type 1 diabetes, a pancreas transplant may be an option. Islet transplants are being studied as well. With a successful pancreas transplant, you would no longer need insulin therapy. But transplants aren't always successful — and these procedures pose serious risks. You need a lifetime of immune-suppressing drugs to prevent organ rejection. These drugs can have serious side effects, which is why transplants are usually reserved for people whose diabetes can't be controlled or those who also need a kidney transplant.
Bariatric surgery. Although it is not specifically considered a treatment for type 2 diabetes, people with type 2 diabetes who are obese and have a body mass index higher than 35 may benefit from this type of surgery.