Bacterial Skin Infections: Impetigo and MRSA
Bacterial Skin Infections: Impetigo and MRSA What kinds of bacteria can cause contagious skin infections? Certain bacteria commonly live on the skin of many people without causing harm. However, these bacteria can cause skin infections if they enter the body through cuts, open wounds, or other breaks in the skin. Mar 31, · Streptococcus pyogenes is one of the most important bacterial causes of human skin infections. If S. pyogenes invades deep into the tissue, it can cause .
Most of these bacteria, like infechions listed, below make their presence felt immediately and may or may not result in death. Some people though, can be infected with a bacterium — that normally causes a disease — and not show any infecctions effects at all. People like this are called carriers. A sad example of this was Typhoid Mary who was identified as a carrier for typhoid fever in Some bacteria attack us in a manner that is not immediately painful, in fact the pain may not be apparent for years.
The primary example of this is tooth decay. Tooth decay is caused by dental plaque, which is a build up of 4 main species of bacteria on the teeth around the gums: Streptococcus sanguisS. In later stages, this plaque can also involve species of Fusobacterium, Borrelia and Actinomycetes. Tooth decay results from the corrosive action of organic acids released by the bacteria, as they metabolise sugars in your food as part of their normal life.
The World Health Organization estimates that nearly 3, people each year die from tuberculosis. Respiratory and Diarrhoeal diseases cause a similar amount — or even more — deaths but only some of these are caused by bacteria others being caused by viruses, protozoa and fungi.
Apart from these diseases, AIDS, malaria and the various forms of Hepatitis all kill between 1 and 3 million people each year what bacteria cause skin infections but none of these are caused by bacteria either so I will say no more about them here.
As scientific research and WHO immunization programs continue, some of what 10 cm in inches diseases are being brought under control and the toll on human life bcteria decreasing.
Environmental disasters such as flood, drought and earthquakes increase the death toll from disease by making people bactreia vulnerable through shock, weakness and reduced sanitation. However, it is trivial compared with the number of people who will suffer some form of illness or other caused by bacteria — though they are not killed by it.
Bacterial and other infectious diseases are far more significant in third world countries. A direct result of poverty reducing sanitary practices, medical care and awareness. We come into contact with bacetria of bacteria every day. They are in the air we breathe, in and on the food we eat and on the surfaces of most things we touch.
Apart from our normal florabacteria that come into contact with us have to pass our various defense mechanisms, our dry skin and our acid stomach. Physical actions such as the movement of matter through our alimentary how to check serial port in ubuntu, brushing our teeth and washing all help to make life difficult for bacteria.
Those bacteria which do colonise our system, generally do so by breaking through the mucus barrier that lines most how to draw male croquis our alimentary canal mouth to anus. Or by entering through damaged tissue, i. Once a bacterium has entered the system, it is free to grow and spread.
Nearly all infectious diseases start out as small localized infections and will only spread through the sikn if the bacteria gain access to the blood stream.
It does not equate with disease or damage. You can be infected by an organism that never makes you ill. Bacteria rarely, if ever, cause disease merely by being present. Even the infectoons factors they produce to help them invade the body often do little real harm. Virulence factors are normally enzymes. Their role is to make it easier for the bacterium to invade your body.
The pathogenicity of invasive bacteria, or their ability to cause disease, is generally the result of toxins. Substances produced by the bacterial cell — sometimes simply as a by-product of its normal metabolism — which interact negatively with our body, by interfering with the normal functioning. This is often done by simply damaging how to make paper butterflies with tissue paper specific cells, blocking the transmission of some sort of internal signals or by overstimulating some sorts of cells so they malfunction.
The ecological reasons for the production of these toxins is not always understood. Also, because of the vagaries of bacterial genetic reproductionotherwise harmless species can acquire a gene which what does mode median and range mean in maths them to secrete a toxin — thus making them a pathogenic strain of a normally harmless species. Toxins that are leaked or secreted out of the bacteria cell and into its host you and me are called Exotoxins.
Bacterial cells can also produce substances which, though toxic, are not secreted into the host — but remain bound to the bacterial cell wall. These substances only fulfill their toxic potential if and when the bacterial cell dies and is lysed broken open and its contents released.
Exotoxins come in three different forms. These are called cytalytic toxins, A-B toxins and superantigen toxins. A-B what bacteria cause skin infections are two or more molecules working as a team. The A molecule binds to a cell wall, where it forms a channel to allow molecule What bacteria cause skin infections access to the cell.
Diphtheria is a cytalytic toxin. Tetanus is an A-B toxin. Cholera is an A-B toxin that is also an Enterotoxin because it works in the intestine. This keeps happening and has two effects: all the water in the small intestine causes diarrhoea — and thus the body dehydrates. Eventually the small intestine loses water faster than the large intestine can reabsorb it — and death follows from dehydration. Clostridium botulinum produces toxins which are among the most poisonous or toxic substances known.
The below list of the different diseases caused by bacteria also includes who what are soda crackers made of the connection and when. Well, we hope you now have a good idea about how bacterium cause disease and which ones do it!
Your email address will not be published. Diseases Caused by Bacteria The below list of the different diseases caused by bacteria also includes who zippo how to replace wick the connection and when. Hansen, Tetanus Clostridium tetani A. Nicolaier, Whooping Cough Bordetella pertussis J.
Bordet and O. Gengou, Typhoid Fever Salmonella typhi C. Eberth, Paratyphoid Fever Salmonella paratyphi H. Schottmuller, Cholera Vibrio cholorae R. Koch, Plague Yersinia pestis S. Kitasato, A. Yersin, Tuberculosis Mycobacterium tuberculosis R. Koch Meningitis Neisseria meningitidis A. Weichselbaum, Bacterial Pneumonia Streptococcus pneumoniae A. Fraenkal, Anthrax Bacillus anthracis R. Koch, Botulism Clostridium botulinum E.
Shiga, Diarrhoea Escherichia coli T. Escherich, Food Poisoning Salmonella enteriditis A. Gaertner, Gas Cauze Clostridium perfringens W. Welch, Syphilis Treponema wat F. Schaudinn and E. Hoffman, Diphtheria Corynebacterium diphtheriae T. Klebs, Gonorrhoea Neisseria gonorrhoeae A.
Final Thoughts Well, we hope you now have a good idea about how bacterium cause disease bavteria which ones do it! How to have strong biceps Recent Posts.
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Apr 21, · Bacterial Skin Infections. Bacterial skin infections are usually caused by gram-positive strains of Staphylococcus and Streptococcus or other organisms. Common bacterial skin infections include: Cellulitis causes a painful, red infection that is usually warm to the touch. Cellulitis occurs most often on the legs, but it can appear anywhere on the body. These bacteria, although less dangerous than Staphylococcus aureus, can cause serious infections, usually when acquired in a hospital. The bacteria may infect catheters inserted through the skin into a blood vessel or implanted medical devices (such as heart pacemakers or artificial heart valves and joints). Jun 30, · According to a large-scale new study, iron levels that are excessively high may cause bacterial skin infections, such as cellulitis and abscesses.
Staphylococcus aureus is the most dangerous of all of the many common staphylococcal bacteria. These gram-positive , sphere-shaped coccal bacteria see figure How Bacteria Shape Up often cause skin infections but can cause pneumonia, heart valve infections, and bone infections.
These bacteria are spread by having direct contact with an infected person, by using a contaminated object, or by inhaling infected droplets dispersed by sneezing or coughing.
Skin infections are common, but the bacteria can spread through the bloodstream and infect distant organs. The diagnosis is based on the appearance of the skin or identification of the bacteria in a sample of the infected material. Antibiotics are chosen based on whether they are likely to be effective against the strain causing the infection.
See also Overview of Bacteria. The percentages are higher for people who are patients in a hospital or who work there. The bacteria can spread from person to person by direct contact, through contaminated objects such as gym equipment, telephones, door knobs, television remote controls, or elevator buttons , or, less often, by inhalation of infected droplets dispersed by sneezing or coughing.
Carriers are people who have the bacteria but do not have any symptoms caused by the bacteria. Carriers can move the bacteria from their nose to other body parts with their hands, sometimes leading to infection.
People who are hospitalized or work in a hospital are more likely to be carriers. Skin infections, often causing abscesses. However, the bacteria can travel through the bloodstream called bacteremia and infect almost any site in the body, particularly heart valves endocarditis and bones osteomyelitis.
The bacteria also tend to accumulate on medical devices in the body, such as artificial heart valves or joints, heart pacemakers, and catheters inserted through the skin into blood vessels. Bloodstream infections: When a catheter that is inserted in a vein has remained in place for a long time. Endocarditis: When people inject illegal drugs or have an artificial heart valve or when a catheter inserted in a vein is infected. Osteomyelitis: When Staphylococcus aureus spreads to the bone from an infection in the bloodstream or from an infection in nearby soft tissue, as may occur in people with deep pressure sores or foot sores due to diabetes.
Lung infection pneumonia : When people have had influenza particularly or a bloodstream infection, when people are taking corticosteroids or drugs that suppress the immune system immunosuppressants , or when they are hospitalized because they need tracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation called hospital-acquired pneumonia.
There are many strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Some strains produce toxins that can cause staphylococcal food poisoning , toxic shock syndrome , or scalded skin syndrome. Toxic shock syndrome is also caused by toxins produced by some streptococci. This syndrome causes rapidly progressive and severe symptoms that include fever, rash, dangerously low blood pressure, and failure of several organs.
Chronic lung disorders such as cystic fibrosis or emphysema. A transplanted organ , an implanted medical device such as artificial heart valves , joints , or heart pacemakers , or a catheter inserted into a vein for a long time.
Diabetes mellitus. A chronic kidney disorder requiring dialysis. Drugs, such as corticosteroids, drugs that suppress the immune system immunosuppressants , or cancer chemotherapy. Many strains have developed resistance to the effects of antibiotics. If carriers take antibiotics, the antibiotics kill the strains that are not resistant, leaving mainly the resistant strains.
These bacteria may then multiply, and if they cause infection, the infection is more difficult to treat. Whether the bacteria are resistant and which antibiotics they resist often depend on where people got the infection: in a hospital or other health care facility or outside of such a facility in the community.
Because antibiotics are widely used in hospitals, hospital staff members commonly carry resistant strains. When people are infected in a health care facility, the bacteria are usually resistant to several types of antibiotics, including almost all antibiotics that are related to penicillin called beta-lactam antibiotics. Strains of bacteria that are resistant to almost all beta-lactam antibiotics are called methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA.
Methicillin is a type of penicillin. MRSA strains are common when infection is acquired in a health care facility called hospital-acquired infection. Some strains of MRSA cause infections that are acquired outside of a health care facility called community-acquired infection , including mild abscesses and skin infections. The number of these community-acquired infections is increasing.
Staphylococcal infections may be difficult to treat because many of the bacteria have developed resistance to antibiotics. Folliculitis is the least serious. A hair root follicle is infected, causing a slightly painful, tiny pimple at the base of a hair.
Impetigo consists of shallow, fluid-filled blisters that rupture, leaving honey-colored crusts. Impetigo may itch or hurt. Abscesses boils or furuncles are warm, painful collections of pus just below the skin. Cellulitis is infection of skin and the tissue just under it. Cellulitis spreads, causing pain and redness. Toxic epidermal necrolysis and, in newborns, scalded skin syndrome are serious infections. Both lead to large-scale peeling of skin. Breast infections mastitis , which may include cellulitis and abscesses, can develop 1 to 4 weeks after delivery.
The area around the nipple is red and painful. The bacteria may then infect the nursing infant. Pneumonia often causes a high fever, shortness of breath, and a cough with sputum that may be tinged with blood. Lung abscesses may develop. They sometimes enlarge and involve the membranes around the lungs and sometimes cause pus to collect called an empyema.
These problems make breathing even more difficult. Bloodstream infection is a common cause of death in people with severe burns. Symptoms typically include a persistent high fever and sometimes shock. Endocarditis can quickly damage heart valves, leading to heart failure with difficulty breathing and possibly death. Osteomyelitis causes chills, fever, and bone pain. The skin and soft tissues over the infected bone become red and swollen, and fluid may accumulate in nearby joints.
Other infections require samples of blood or infected fluids, which are sent to a laboratory to grow culture , identify, and test the bacteria. Laboratory results confirm the diagnosis and determine which antibiotics can kill the staphylococci called susceptibility testing. If a doctor suspects osteomyelitis, x-rays, computed tomography CT , magnetic resonance imaging MRI , radionuclide bone scanning , or a combination is also done.
These tests can show where the damage is and help determine how severe it is. Bone biopsy is done to obtain a sample for testing. The sample may be removed with a needle or during surgery. People can help prevent the spread of these bacteria by always thoroughly washing their hands with soap and water or applying an alcohol-based hand sanitizer. Some doctors recommend applying the antibiotic mupirocin inside the nostrils to eliminate staphylococci from the nose.
However, because overusing mupirocin can lead to mupirocin resistance, this antibiotic is used only when people are likely to get an infection. For example, it is given to people before certain operations or to people who live in a household in which the skin infection is spreading.
If carriers of staphylococci need to have certain types of surgery, they are often treated with an antibiotic before the surgery.
In some health care facilities, people are routinely screened for MRSA when they are admitted. Some facilities screen only people who are at increased of getting a MRSA infection, such as those who are about to have certain operations. Screening involves testing a sample taken from the nose with a cotton swab. If MRSA strains are detected, people are isolated to prevent spread of the bacteria.
Infections due to Staphylococcus aureus are treated with antibiotics. Doctors try to determine whether the bacteria are resistant to antibiotics and, if so, to which antibiotics. Infection that is acquired in a hospital is treated with antibiotics that are effective against MRSA. They include vancomycin , linezolid , tedizolid , quinupristin plus dalfopristin, ceftaroline, telavancin , or daptomycin.
If results of testing later indicate that the strain is susceptible to methicillin and the person is not allergic to penicillin, a drug related to methicillin, such as nafcillin or oxacillin , is used. Depending on how severe the infection is, antibiotics may be given for weeks.
MRSA infection can be acquired outside of a health care facility. Mild skin infections due to MRSA, such as folliculitis, are usually treated with an ointment, such as one that contains bacitracin , neomycin , and polymyxin B available without a prescription or mupirocin available by prescription only. If more than an ointment is required, antibiotics effective against MRSA are given by mouth or intravenously.
Which antibiotic is used depends on the severity of the infection and the results of susceptibility testing. If an infection involves bone or foreign material in the body such as heart pacemakers, artificial heart valves and joints, and blood vessel grafts , rifampin and possibly another antibiotic are sometimes added to the antibiotic regimen.
Usually, infected bone and foreign material has to be removed surgically to cure the infection. Staphylococcus aureus produces an enzyme called coagulase. Other species of staphylococci do not and thus are called coagulase-negative staphylococci.
These bacteria normally reside on the skin of all healthy people. These bacteria, although less dangerous than Staphylococcus aureus , can cause serious infections, usually when acquired in a hospital. The bacteria may infect catheters inserted through the skin into a blood vessel or implanted medical devices such as heart pacemakers or artificial heart valves and joints. These bacteria are often resistant to many antibiotics. Vancomycin , which is effective against many resistant bacteria, is used, sometimes with rifampin.
Medical devices, if infected, often must be removed. From developing new therapies that treat and prevent disease to helping people in need, we are committed to improving health and well-being around the world. The Merck Manual was first published in as a service to the community. Learn more about our commitment to Global Medical Knowledge.